The ability to make ideas convincing, not on their merits but through their manner of presentation, is both magical and infuriating.
I find it magical because this skill (which was called rhetoric in the classical and medieval world, and is now called, alternately, advertising, public relations, and “communications”) can lodge the most preposterous beliefs in our heads, or lead us to spend money on things for reasons we do not fully understand.
It is magical to me when I consider how Apple in the 1980s and ’90s tacitly convinced people they were iconoclasts because they bought a certain brand of mass-produced machine. It is infuriating to me when I see people buying the idea, peddled by gun industry lobbyists, that those of us who don’t own guns are to blame for mass shootings. If we all took on the responsibility of carrying lethal weapons, so the argument goes, we would all be safer.
When you slow down such arguments, and remove the undercurrent of self-importance or fear that carries them into the mind, their unreason is quickly revealed. A mass-produced object does not make me more of an individual. A plague of weapons does not make us safer. But rhetoric, operating at full power, can make such arguments feel like the truth. This has consequences at the cash register and the ballot box, where we shape our future.
Rhetoric was conceived in the hothouse of ancient greek public oratory, where it was an essential skill for the political class. But in our own time, where the speed of debate and its emotional charge are amplified by instantaneous electronic media, and generations of mass audience advertising have influenced how we think, rhetoric has become ubiquitous and taken on godlike powers.
Partly because I like collecting shiny things, and partly in an effort to defend my own sanity and intellectual integrity against the messages that bombard me daily from every screen and printed page, I collect rhetorical tactics. I dissect them and try to figure out where their power comes from. Up until now, my collection has lived in notebooks and in my own thoughts. I thought I’d share some of my collection here.
First up: “War On …”
The phrase “declare war on” is a sure sign that rhetoric is being deployed. Framing any public issue as a war splits it into a binary conflict with the aim of recruiting you to one of the two sides, invariably the side favored by whoever has invoked war as a way of framing the issue in the first place. (more…)